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Predicting the Storability of Soybean Seed Lots1
Charles C. Baskin and Edson H. N. Vieira2
Changes in germination of 22 soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed lots in open storage were compared to several time-temperature combinations of accelerated aging (AA) to determine their accuracy in predicting the storability of soybean seed lots. Samples of seed were placed in open storage at Mississippi State University on March 4. Germination tests were conducted from samples in open storage in June, August, October and December.
Correlation coefficients (r) were .860** and .937** for AA at 40 C for 48 hours with June and August germination respectively and .900** and .849** for AA at 45 C for 48 hours with October and December germinations respectively. This demonstrates that accelerated aging is an effective means of predicting storability of soybean seed lots.
Additional word index: Germination, accelerated aging, regression analysis.
Storage of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Seed1
Aguilera V. Humberto and Heiner Goldbach2
Seeds of Coffea arabica, 'Caturra', were kept under different storage conditions. When sealed hermetically in gas-proof foil packets and stored at 10 C, seeds with 43 % moisture content maintained 74 % viability for five months. At moisture contents of approximately 31 % and 36 % , seeds deteriorated much faster.
Drying to 6 % s.m.c. quickly killed coffee seeds. Surprisingly, some 20-25 % of the seeds at 13% s.m.c. survived over six months at -20 C, a temperature thought to be lethal to so-called recalcitrant seeds. Simple classification of seeds as either 'orthodox' or 'recalcitrant' does not take into account the more complex storage behavior of species such as coffee.
Additional Index Words: Recalcitrant seeds, Short-lived seeds, Viability, High moisture storage, Sealed storage, Open storage, Drying, Relative Humidity, Tetrazolium testing.
An Esterase Isoenzyme Difference in Seed Extracts of Annual and Perennial Ryegrass1
R.C. Payne, J. A. Scott, and T. J. Koszykowski2
Seed extracts of 16 annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cultivars and 35 perennial ryegrass (L. perenne L.) cultivars were analyzed by polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis for esterase activity. One esterase isoenzyme stained darkly in annual samples and faintly in perennial samples. The staining intensity of this esterase band appeared to be unaffected by seed quality, linked to growth habit and independent of seedling fluorescence. It was possible to use the staining intensity of this esterase band to detect mixtures of annual and perennial seeds. Electrophoresis of seed proteins followed by staining for esterase shows promise as a procedure for distinguishing between seeds of annual and perennial ryegrass.
Additional index words: Lolium multiflorum Lam., Lolium perenne L., disc electrophoresis, polyacrylamide, fluorescence test.
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Tetrazolium Testing Procedures for Native Shrubs and Forbs1
G.P. Weber and L. E. Wiesner2
Three forb and eight shrub species native to the Rocky Mountain and Northern Great Plains regions were evaluated for seed viability with 2 3, 5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TZ). Specific staining techniques were developed for each species. Treatments include presoaks, seed coat puncture, seed coat removal, and seed bisection.
Additional index words: Achillea millefolium, Linum lewisii, Ratibida columnifera, Amelanchier alnifolia, Amorpha froticosa, Artemisia tridentata, Ceretoides lanata, Prunus virginiana, Purshia tridentata, Rhus trilobata, Symphoricarpos albus, Viability, Tetrazolium.
The Relationship Between Embryo Axis Weight and Reserve Protein During Development and Pumpkin Seed Germination1
Mack A. Wilson and Walter E . Splittstoesser2
Germination of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Poir, cv. Dickinson Field) seeds at various times after anthesis was associated with embryo axis weight and the amount of protein reserve. Embryo axis weight increased significantly between 25 and 30 days after anthesis but maximum germination did not occur until 45 days after anthesis.
Additional index words: Cucurbita moschata, globulin
Some Aspects of Acorn Maturation in Water Oak (Quercus nigra L.)1
C. A. Blanche, W. W. Elam and J. D. Hodges2
Water oak acorns were collected at 5 different dates spanning their maturation period. At each sampling date fresh weight, moisture content, diameter, length, dry weight, germination capacity, chlorophyll and carotenoid content were determined.
Dry weight, germinability, acorn diameter and length all increased while fresh weight, percent moisture content and absolute moisture content increased initially and then declined toward maturity. These changes correlated very well with chlorophyll changes.
Additional index words: absolute moisture, carotenoid, chlorophyll, germ ination capacity, seed.
Identification of Canadian Two-Rowed Barley Cultivars by Electrophoretic Techniques1
N. S. Dhesi2, G. Fedak3, and R. W. Desormeaux2
Thirteen Canadian two-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars were separated into two groups based on differences in rachilla hair length. The cultivars were otherwise indistinguishable for seed phenotypic characters. Electrophoretic techniques were used to distinguish individual cultivars within each of the two groups.
Additional index words: Hordeum vulgare, isozymes, proteins
Stimulation of Tomato, Pepper, and Sugarbeet Seed Germination at Low Temperatures by Growth Regulators1
John M. Nelson and George C. Sharples2
Fusicoccin (FC) applied by acetone infusion to seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), pepper (Capiscum annuum L.) and sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) promoted rapid germination. Gibberellic acid (GA3, GA4/7) stimulated low temperature germination of pepper and sugarbeet seeds but was less effective than FC.
Additional index words: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Capsicum annuum L., Beta vulgaris L., fusicoccin, gibberellic acid, kinetin, ethephon.
A New Tolerance Evaluation Procedure for Three Component Turfgrass Seed Mixtures
T. P. Riordan, A. H. Bruneau, R. C. Shearman and E. J. Kinbacher
Three mathematical formulas are used to determine whether a three component turfgrass seed mixture is within the tolerances set forth in the "Tolerance Section" of the Rules for Testing Seeds. The calculations are not affected by changes in other crop seed, weed seed, or inert matter percent ages. This procedure is accurate and is easily programmed on microcomputers or programmable calculators.
Additional index words: Seed analyst, Seed label, Purity analysis
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Possible Ethylene Involvement in Differential Growth Response of Hypocotyls of Two Soybean Cultivars to Physical Impediment1
Hypocotyl lengths of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars 'Clark' and 'Mandarin' were reduced by planting 7 cm deep in sand at 25 C; the former did not emerge in 9 days but the latter did. Application of Co2+ solution, however, promoted emergence of Clark seedlings.
Additional index words: Glycine max (L.) Merr., ethylene, seedling emergence.
Influence of Amount of Water in the Paper Towel on Standard Germination Tests
Bangalore R. Phaneendranath2
The standard germination test is the one test that is being widely used by every seed testing laboratory to check the viability of seeds. However, significant variations in results exist between laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various amounts of moisture in the paper towel on standard germination test results.
Additional index words: Sorghum bicolor L. Monech, Zea mays L., viability, variation, moisture.
Oat Cultivar Characterization Using Electrophoresis1
Miller B. McDonald, Jr.2
Eight oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars were characterized using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to obtain protein, esterase, and peroxidase handing patterns from unimbibed seed extracts. A total of ten protein bands were resolved and six (Clintford, Clintland, Dal, Lang, Rodney, Stout) of the eight oat cultivars could be differentiated from each other based on the presence or absence of protein bands. Noble and Otee possessed identical protein banding patterns and could not be separated from each other.
Additional index words: Avena sativa L., variety, seed, isoenzyme, protein, esterase, peroxidase, chemotaxonomy, cytogenetics.