Volume 5, No. 2, 1980

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(pp. 1-6)
Predicting the Storability of Soybean Seed Lots1
Charles C. Baskin and Edson H. N. Vieira2
Changes in germination of 22 soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed lots in open storage were compared to several time-temperature combinations of accelerated aging (AA) to determine their accuracy in predicting the storability of soybean seed lots. Samples of seed were placed in open storage at Mississippi State University on March 4.  Germination tests were conducted from samples in open storage in June, August, October and December.

The effectiveness of the tests were evaluated by simple regression analysis.
Correlation coefficients (r) were .860** and .937** for AA at 40 C for 48 hours with June and  August germination respectively and .900** and .849** for AA at 45 C for 48 hours with  October and December germinations respectively. This demonstrates that accelerated aging is an effective means of predicting storability of soybean seed lots.
Additional word index: Germination, accelerated aging, regression analysis.
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(pp. 7-13)
Storage of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Seed1
Aguilera V. Humberto and Heiner Goldbach2
Seeds of Coffea arabica, 'Caturra', were kept under different storage condi­tions. When sealed hermetically in gas-proof foil packets and stored at 10 C, seeds with 43 % moisture content maintained 74 % viability for five months. At moisture contents of approximately 31 % and 36 % , seeds deteriorated much faster.

Seeds kept 6 months in "open" storage at 10 C and in an at­mosphere of 70 to 90 % relative humidity (RH), resulting in a seed moisture content (s.m.c.) of 15 and 23 % , respectively, maintained high viability (be­ tween 84 and 92 % ) over six months; whereas, most seeds died at 50 % RH (9% s.m.c.)
Drying to 6 % s.m.c. quickly killed coffee seeds. Surprisingly, some 20-25 % of the seeds at 13% s.m.c. survived over six months at -20 C, a temperature thought to be lethal to so-called recalcitrant seeds. Simple classification of seeds as either 'orthodox' or 'recalcitrant' does not take into account the more complex storage behavior of species such as coffee.
Additional Index Words: Recalcitrant seeds, Short-lived seeds, Viability, High moisture storage, Sealed storage, Open storage, Drying, Relative Humidity, Tetrazolium testing.
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(pp. 14-22)
An Esterase Isoenzyme Difference in Seed Extracts of Annual and Perennial Ryegrass1
R.C. Payne, J. A. Scott, and T. J. Koszykowski2
Seed extracts of 16 annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) cultivars and 35 perennial ryegrass (L. perenne L.) cultivars were analyzed by polyacrylamide disc electrophoresis for esterase activity. One esterase isoen­zyme stained darkly in annual samples and faintly in perennial samples. The staining intensity of this esterase band appeared to be unaffected by seed quality, linked to growth habit and independent of seedling fluorescence. It was possible to use the staining intensity of this esterase band to detect mixtures of annual and perennial seeds. Electrophoresis of seed proteins followed by staining for esterase shows promise as a procedure for distinguishing bet­ween seeds of annual and perennial ryegrass.
Additional index words: Lolium multiflorum Lam., Lolium perenne L., disc electrophoresis, polyacrylamide, fluorescence test.
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(pp. 23-34)
Tetrazolium Testing Procedures for Native Shrubs and Forbs1
G.P. Weber and L. E. Wiesner2
Three forb and eight shrub species native to the Rocky Mountain and Nor­thern Great Plains regions were evaluated for seed viability with 2 3, 5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TZ). Specific staining techniques were developed for each species. Treatments include presoaks, seed coat puncture, seed coat removal, and seed bisection.

Species tested and their viability values were Achillea millefolium L., (yarrow) 86 % ; Linum lewisii (pursh) (Lewis flax) 93 %; Ratibida columnifera (Nutt.) Wooten and Standley, (prairie cone­ flower) 72 %; Amelanchier alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt., (serviceberry) 84 % ; Amor­pha fruticosa L., (indigobush) 94 %; Artemisia tridentata Nutt., (big sage­ brush) 66 % ; Ceretoides lanata (Pursh) Howell, (winterfat) 91%; Prunus virginiana L., (chokecherry) 98 %; Purshia tridentata (Pursh) DC., (antelope bitterbrush ) 100%; Rhus trilobata Nutt., (skunkbush sumac) 913; and Symphoricarpos albus (L.) Blake, (snowberry) 68 %.
Additional index words: Achillea millefolium, Linum lewisii, Ratibida columnifera, Amelanchier alnifolia, Amorpha froticosa, Artemisia tridentata, Ceretoides lanata, Prunus virginiana, Purshia tridentata, Rhus trilobata, Symphoricarpos albus, Viability, Tetrazolium.
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(pp. 35-41)
The Relationship Between Embryo Axis Weight and Reserve Protein During Development and Pumpkin Seed Germination1
Mack A. Wilson and Walter E . Splittstoesser2
Germination of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Poir, cv. Dickinson Field) seeds at various times after anthesis was associated with embryo axis weight and the amount of protein reserve. Embryo axis weight increased significant­ly between 25 and 30 days after anthesis but maximum germination did not occur until 45 days after anthesis.

Synthesis of the protein reserve as measured by total globulin was initiated 25 days after anthesis and by 40 days the globulin fraction comprised 96 % of the total seed protein (30 mg protein/seed). One major reserve globulin was synthesized at all times after anthesis and seed germination was positively correlated with the amount of reserve protein. It was suggested that this large protein reserve allows pumpkin seeds harvested 45 days after anthesis (116 mg dry wt./seed) to produce yields which are similar to large pumpkin seeds (200 mg dry wt./seed).
Additional index words: Cucurbita moschata, globulin
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(pp. 42-51)
Some Aspects of Acorn Maturation in Water Oak (Quercus nigra L.)1
C. A. Blanche, W. W. Elam and J. D. Hodges2
Water oak acorns were collected at 5 different dates spanning their matur­ation period. At each sampling date fresh weight, moisture content, diameter, length, dry weight, germination capacity, chlorophyll and carotenoid con­tent were determined.

A spectrophotometric scan of 90 % acetone extract of Quercus nigra L. per­icarp showed absorption peaks at wavelengths 665 and 432 nm. Total chlor­ophyll concentration decreased while carotenoid concentration remained constant toward maturity. For each sampling time during maturation, chloro­phyll a concentration did not vary significantly from chlorophyll b. The mean ratio of a to b was constant throughout the maturation period.
Dry weight, germinability, acorn diameter and length all increased while fresh weight, percent moisture content and absolute moisture content increas­ed initially and then declined toward maturity. These changes correlated very well with chlorophyll changes.
Additional index words: absolute moisture, carotenoid, chlorophyll, germ­ ination capacity, seed.
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(pp. 52-61)
Identification of Canadian Two-Rowed Barley Cultivars by Electrophoretic Techniques1
N. S. Dhesi2, G. Fedak3, and R. W. Desormeaux2
Thirteen Canadian two-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars were separated into two groups based on differences in rachilla hair length. The cultivars were otherwise indistinguishable for seed phenotypic characters. Electrophoretic techniques were used to distinguish individual cultivars within each of the two groups.

Banding patterns in six systems including, in seedlings: esterase, peroxidase and anodal and cathodal acid phosphatases, plus, in seeds, peroxidase and general proteins were effective in providing resolu­tion for cultivars. One cultivar, Elrose, was distinguishable only on the basis of being polymorphic for parental patterns in esterase and anodal acid phosphatase.
Additional index words: Hordeum vulgare, isozymes, proteins
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(pp. 62-68)
Stimulation of Tomato, Pepper, and Sugarbeet Seed Germination at Low Temperatures by Growth Regulators1
John M. Nelson and George C. Sharples2
Fusicoccin (FC) applied by acetone infusion to seeds of tomato (Lycoper­sicon esculentum Mill.), pepper (Capiscum annuum L.) and sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) promoted rapid germination. Gibberellic acid (GA3, GA4/7) stimulated low temperature germination of pepper and sugarbeet seeds but was less effective than FC.

Ethephon (E) stimulated germination of 'Ace 55 VF' tomato seeds while no response resulted from kinetin (K) treatment. The combination of GA4/7, K and E stimulated early germination of tomato seeds. FC and GA4/7 used in combination on sugarbeet seeds were not faster acting than FC alone but did eventually produce an additive increase in the germination rate.
Additional index words: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., Capsicum an­nuum L., Beta vulgaris L., fusicoccin, gibberellic acid, kinetin, ethephon.
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(pp. 69-73)
A New Tolerance Evaluation Procedure for Three Component Turfgrass Seed Mixtures
T. P. Riordan, A. H. Bruneau, R. C. Shearman and E. J. Kinbacher
Three mathematical formulas are used to determine whether a three­ component turfgrass seed mixture is within the tolerances set forth in the "Tolerance Section" of the Rules for Testing Seeds. The calculations are not affected by changes in other crop seed, weed seed, or inert matter percent­ ages. This procedure is accurate and is easily programmed on micro­computers or programmable calculators.
Additional index words: Seed analyst, Seed label, Purity analysis
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(pp. 74-81)
Possible Ethylene Involvement in Differential Growth Response of Hypocotyls of Two Soybean Cultivars to Physical Impediment1
Cyrus Samimy2
Hypocotyl lengths of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivars 'Clark' and 'Mandarin' were reduced by planting 7 cm deep in sand at 25 C; the former did not emerge in 9 days but the latter did. Application of Co2+ solu­tion, however, promoted emergence of Clark seedlings.

The weight of the sand increased hypocotyl diameter of both cultivars, increased total hypocotyl fresh weight of Mandarin without affecting that of Clark and enhanced ethylene production of Clark seedlings more than that of Man­darin. The rate of ethylene production of Clark seedlings also increased more than that of Mandarin seedlings when hypocotyl elongation was restricted by means of a rubber stopper. The morphological effects of physical stress on hypocotyls were duplicated by application of ethylene; however, hypocotyl elongation of Clark was affected by the inhibitory action of ethylene more than that of Mandarin.
Additional index words: Glycine max (L.) Merr., ethylene, seedling emergence.
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(pp. 82-87)
Influence of Amount of Water in the Paper Towel on Standard Germination Tests
Bangalore R. Phaneendranath2
The standard germination test is the one test that is being widely used by every seed testing laboratory to check the viability of seeds. However, signifi­cant variations in results exist between laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of various amounts of moisture in the paper towel on standard germination test results.

Germination of various varieties and lots of hybrid sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Monech) and hybrid com (Zea mays L.) seeds were evaluated us­ing water at 2, 2.5, and 3 times the weight of paper towel. In all cases, the lowest amount of water gave maximum germination and as the water in­creased in the medium germination decreased. In sorghum, the decrease in germination at the 2.5 moisture level was 1 to 6 % and at the 3, 5 to 9 % . In corn, this effect was more dramatic. Germination reduction at 2.5 level was 0 to 27 % and at 3, 6 to 35 %.
Additional index words: Sorghum bicolor L. Monech, Zea mays L., viabili­ty, variation, moisture.
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(pp. 88-101)
Oat Cultivar Characterization Using Electrophoresis1
Miller B. McDonald, Jr.2
Eight oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars were characterized using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to obtain protein, esterase, and peroxidase handing patterns from unimbibed seed extracts. A total of ten protein bands were resolved and six (Clintford, Clintland, Dal, Lang, Rodney, Stout) of the eight oat cultivars could be differentiated from each other based on the presence or absence of protein bands. Noble and Otee possessed identical pro­tein banding patterns and could not be separated from each other.

Esterase electrophoresis revealed a total of four bands for the cultivars. The cultivar Noble contained bands B, C, and D while Otee possessed bands A, B, and C which enabled separation of these cultivars. Thus, a combination of protein and esterase electrophoresis allowed a complete differentiation and characterization of the eight oat cultivars examined. Peroxidase electrophoresis revealed a total of three bands for all cultivars with the exception of Dal which possessed only one band. This study demonstrates that electrophoresis of seed proteins can be used to supplement present field testing techniques for the characterization and rapid identification of oat cultivars.
Additional index words: Avena sativa L., variety, seed, isoenzyme, protein, esterase, peroxidase, chemotaxonomy, cytogenetics.
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