Volume 4, No. 1, 1979

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(pp. 1-6)
A Philosophy of Teaching Seed Analysts1
Viola Stanway2
A need exists for learning the principles of seed testing and their application toward determining quality of seed. I believe there should be three courses offered at the college level. The first should deal chiefly with the identification and germination of agricultural and weed seeds as well as the basic mechanics of making purity and germination tests.

Students in the second course should learn to identify the domestic grasses in the 14 tribes and the noxious weeds in the grass family and in 12 additional plant families. More technical aspects should be covered. The third course should emphasize identification of species and varieties of various chaffy grasses as well as certain species of Brassica. These three courses need to be integrated to give students an appreciation of seed quality as  well as knowledge of the AOSA Rules and mechanics of seed technology.
Additional index words: purity test, germination test, species, tribe and variety.
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(pp. 7-11)
An Anhydrous Hydrochloric Acid Method for Delinting Small Samples of Cottonseed1
N. W. Hopper and H. R. Hinton2
Most of the cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.) delinting done on the High Plains of Texas uses the anhydrous hydrochloric acid procedure. Ap­proximately 900 kg are delinted in each batch. A modified batch procedure was developed to accommodate the small sample sizes (e.g. 10-5000 g) often used for experimental purposes.

The small sample procedure was considered representative of the technique that most commercial operations utilize.
A small scale anhydrous hydrochloric acid delinting system was designed for this study and tested in the laboratory. It was concluded that, utilizing this system, an acid exposure time of 8 min provided the best compromise between ease of lint removal and minimum seed damage. Times in excess of 8 min reduced germination (37 % at 16 min) while times less than 8 min did not facilitate complete lint removal.
Additional index words: Gossypium hirsutum L., delint, seed preparation
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(pp. 12-17)
Effect of Diflubenzuron on Cotton Seed Viability and Vigor1
Kriton K . Hatzios and Donald Penner2
Seeds of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., cvs. 'SP 37', 'Coker 312', 'Coker 310', and 'Coker 201') were obtained from plots treated with 0, 0.035, 0.07, and 0.14 kg/ha of diflubenzuron [1-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl) urea] at Lubbock and New Deal, Texas and Santa Fe and Sanford, Florida, respectively. Seed viability was determined by the standard germination test and seed vigor was determined by accelerated aging and the cold test. Diflubenzuron did not adversely affect seed viability or vigor in cotton.

'Coker 312' seeds from plots treated with 0.035 and 0.07 kg/ha of diflubenzuron produced a higher percentage of normal seedlings than did control seeds following accelerated aging. Germination, emergence and seedling height of 'Coker 310' from plots treated with all rates of diflubenzuron were significantly greater than for control seeds in the cold treatment. The results of standard germination test of 'Coker 310' seeds from plots treated with 0.14 kg/ha and with 0.07 and 0.14 kg/ha of diflubenzuron following accelerated aging were also higher than those of the control seeds.
Additional index words: l-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(2,6-difluorobenzoyl) urea, Gossypium hirsutum L., seed viability, seed vigor.
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(pp. 18-23)
Seeds of Drymaria arenarioides and D. pachyphylla (Caryophyllaceae) and Achenes and Capitula of Crupina vulgaris (Asteraceae)1
Charles R. Gunn and Karen Faul2
Seeds of Drymaria arenarioides Humboldt & Bonpland ex Roemer & Schultes, recently named a noxious-weed seed in Arizona, and seeds of D. pachyphylla Wooton & Standley, as well as achenes and capitula of Crupina vulgaris Cassini, a recently introduced weed into Idaho and California, are described and illustrated.

Additional index word: poisonous plants.
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(pp. 24-33)
Seed Dormancy in Blue Elderberry1
J. A. Clancy and J . D. Maguire2
Seed dormancy in blue elderberry (Sambucus cerulea Raf.) limits the use­fulness of this shrub for revegetation purposes. No germination occurred if the seed were germinated in water but applications of gibberellic acid (GA3) up to 10-2 M did stimulate germination. The effect of GA3 was enhanced very slightly by ethylene but not at all by oxygen. Treatments of seed with kinetin, potassium nitrate, ethephon, naphthalene acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, or thiourea, as well as various scarification treatments, had no dor­mancy breaking effect.

Stratification at 5 C for 100 days in water resulted in only 30% germina­tion while stratification in 10-3 M GA3 for 20, 40, 60, and 100 days prior to germination in GA3 produced 50, 57, 72.5, and 75 % germination, respectively, in 6 weeks. Germination in 10-4 M abscisic acid following stratification inhibited germination.
Excised embryos germinated readily in GA3 but not in water. Following 24 hours leaching, the embryos germinated equally well in water and GA3. The dormancy appeared to be an inhibitor imposed embryo dormancy.
Additional index words: stratification, gibberellic acid, Sambucus cerulea
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(pp. 34-42)
Abscisic Acid Content in Developing Elderberry Seed1
J. A. Clancy and J. D. Maguire2
The ABA content of elderberry (Sambucus cerulea Raf.) seed harvested from two different locations increased as the seed approached physiological maturity and decreased thereafter. At no time during seed maturation would the seed germinate in water. The germination percentage of mature seed stratified and germinated in gibberellic acid increased as the ABA content of the seed declined.

Additional index words: Sambucus cerulea, dormancy, gibberellic acid, germination, stratification.
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(pp. 43-56)
Seed Disinfection With Hypochlorites: A Selected Literature Review of Hypochlorite Chemistry and Definition of Terms1
Aref. A. Abdul-Baki and Granville M. Moore2
This report is a review of selected literature pertinent to the application of hypochlorites as seed sterilants. Emphasis is given to variables known to have significant influence on the usefulness of hypochlorites as disinfecting or sterilizing agents. These variables include concentration, pH, temperature, catalysts, excess alkalinity, chlorine demand, and exposure time. Hypo­chlorite chemistry is summarized and various appropriate terms are defined and presented as recommendations for standard terminology in the use of hypochlorites as seed sterilants.

Additional index words: seed sterilization, seed pre-treatment, chlorine.
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(pp 57-64)
Improved Methods for Testing the Viability of Russian Olive Seed
E. W. Belcher and R. P. Karrfalt1
Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.) seeds normally require about 90 days prechill to initiate germination and another 28 days at the germination temperature for evaluation. An accurate analysis can be made by soaking the seed seven days in water to make the pericarp soft enough to cut then excise the embryo and remove the inner seed coat.

Results will be complete in ten days from the beginning of the soak. The same results may be obtained with less intensive treatments but longer germination periods. Removal of 2 mm of each end will provide results in about 17 days and removal of only the radi­cle end requires about 21 days for a complete analysis.
Additional index words: tree seed, quick tests, excised embryo, cutting
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(pp. 65-78)
Germination of Pelleted and Taped Carrot and Onion Seed Following Storage1
Eric E. Roos2
Coated (pelleted and taped ) and raw carrot (Daucus carota L.) and onion (Allium cepa L.) seed from commercial sources were subjected to 6 storage conditions varying from 21 C, 90 % relative humidity (RH) to 5 C 40 % RH) for periods ranging from 6 months to 3 years.

Three type of packaging material differing in moisture-barrier properties were used . Samples were removed periodically for moisture and germination tests . Both coated and raw seed stored in paper envelopes at 21 C, 90% RH were dead within 12 months while those stored at 5 C, 40% RH retained their initial germination for 3 years. At intermediate storage conditions coated seed stored as well as, or in some instances better than, the raw seed controls.
Additional index words: Allium cepa, L., Daucus carota L.,temperature, relative humidity, seed moisture, coated seed, packaging material.
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