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Download Abstracts from oral and poster presentations given at the 101st Association of Official Seed Analysts and the 88th Society of Commercial Seed Technologists (AOSA/SCST) annual meeting held in Williamsburg, Virginia on June 7–10, 2011
Propagation of Vanda coerulea Via In Vitro Asymbiotic Seed Germination
Viki Manners, Suman Kumaria* and Pramod Tandon
An efficient method of propagation for Vanda coerulea, a rare and endangered species, was developed via in vitro asymbiotic germination of seeds. Seeds excised from 10 to 11-month old artificially pollinated capsules were cultured aseptically on different media.
Effect of Alternative Disinfection Treatments Against Fungal Canker in Seeds of Pinus radiata
Eugenia Iturritxa,* Marie Laure Desprez-Loustau, Ignacio García-Serna, Eneka Quintana, Nebai Mesanza and Jennifer Aitken
Seeds and seedlings of Pinus radiata may be seriously damaged by the canker fungi Diplodia pinea and Fusarium circinatum. This study evaluated alternative seed disinfection treatments against these canker fungi. Experiments were conducted to determine both inhibitory and fungicide effects on colony growth of D. pinea and F. circinatum.
five dilutions of 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100% v/v, two antagonistic organisms, Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma harzianum, from Basque Country plantations, and four thermotherapy treatments of 55 °C for 8, 9, 10 and 11 hours in vitro. Fungicide and fungistatic effects on inhibition of fungal colony growth were evaluated and phytotoxicity of treatments on P. radiata seeds analyzed. Fusarium circinatum and D. pinea responded in similar ways to the tested treatments, although D. pinea was often inhibited at lower doses of chemical fungicides and higher doses of essential oils. Thermotherapy and Trichoderma treatments showed greater effectiveness against the D. pinea strain than the F. circinatum strain. Germination of P. radiata seeds was highly affected by essential oils application, causing a strong inhibitory effect (≥ 92.25% germination inhibition) with most of the tested oils.
Evaluation of Morphological Variation of Common Bean Seeds Through Image Analysis
Juhi Mishra, Vikash Singh Jadon, Manju P. Gusain and Aradhana*
Measurement of various morphological traits of common bean seeds and grouping of landraces collected from Uttarakhand was carried out using image analysis. Projected area, perimeter, major diameter, minor diameter and color of seeds were measured using image analysis.
Variability in Soybean Seed Counts Determined by Electronic and Manual Methods
H. Liu, L.O. Copeland and S.G. Elias*
The soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed count test is routinely conducted to achieve desired field planting rates. Over or under-seeding affects seed production systems adversely. This study was conducted to establish meaningful tolerances that can be used for truth-in-labeling purposes.
Thermotolerance Classification of Ornamental Pepper Cultivars Using Seed Germination Traits
Bandara Gajanayake, Brian W. Trader, K. Raja Reddy* and Richard L. Harkess
Fluctuating and extreme changes in temperature during seed germination may disrupt several physiological processes. Developing easy and reliable screening techniques to identify cultivar tolerance to extreme temperatures would benefit crop breeding programs in selecting cultivars for niche environments. An experiment was conducted to study the influence of temperature on 12 ornamental pepper cultivars using in vitro seed germination parameters.
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Dormancy Breaking in Jute Mallow (Corchorus olitorius) Seeds
Faith N.W. Maina*, Reuben M. Muasya and Linnet S. Gohole
Jute mallow (Corchorus olitorius L.) is an important African leafy vegetable in Kenya. It is highly nutritious and has commercial importance. Jute mallow seeds exhibit dormancy, reducing seed germination and adversely affecting field performance, but limited research has been done on appropriate dormancy breaking methods. In this study, efficacy of various dormancy breaking methods was tested. Treatments included mechanical scarification, soaking in boiling water for 5 min, leaching, soaking in water for 24 h at room temperature, applying wood ash paste on the seeds, soaking in 1% KNO3 for 1 min, and a control. Analysis of variance and Scheffe’s multiple comparison procedure were used to identify methods that significantly differed in seed germination from the control. The most effective treatment was mechanical scarification, followed by leaching and lastly soaking in hot water. The rest of the methods did not significantly differ from the control.
It is therefore recommended that farmers use mechanical scarification to break dormancy in jute mallow seeds before sowing.
Carbon Nanotubes Can Promote Seed Germination via Seed Coat Penetration
Ali Pourkhaloee, Maryam Haghighi*, Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz, Hadi Jouzi and Mohammad Mahdi Doroodmand
Some nanoparticles, like carbon nanotubes, can significantly change plant cell morphology and physiology. The effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on seed germination and seedling growth of salvia (Salvia macrosiphon Boiss.), pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were studied at four concentrations (10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L−1) plus a control (0 mg L−1) under laboratory and greenhouse conditions.
Variation in Seed Soluble Proteins, Carbohydrates, Free Amino Acids and Germination of Three Garhwal Himalayan Conifer Species
B.S. Rawat and A.K. Uniyal*
Seed biochemical composition (protein, sugar, starch and free amino acid content) and percentage germination in seed lots of three important conifer species, Abies pindrow, Cupressus torulosa and Picea smithiana from Garhwal Himalaya, revealed significant differences among these species. The highest protein (30.41 mg g−1), starch (72.96 mg g−1) and free amino acid (5.512 mg g−1) contents were found in seeds of A. pindrow, maximum sugar content (71.78 mg g−1) in C. torulosa, whereas the highest germination (72%) was observed in P. smithiana seeds from Tapovan provenance.
Effect of Different Static Electromagnetic Fields on Germination Speed of Mung Beans (Vigna radiata var. radiata)
E. Rajasekhar, M. Nagaraju*, S. Raisa Reshma and R. Jeevan Kumar
This study investigated the influence of static electromagnetic fields on speed of seed germination of mung beans (green beans), measured as the number of germinated seeds after 24 h of incubation. Prior to germination, seeds were exposed to different types of electromagnetic fields (EMF), namely Helmholtz, north pole and south pole, and different field strengths of 5, 10, 30 and 60 millitesla (mT) at exposures of 15, 30, 45 and 60 min.
Seed Vigor Imaging System for Two-Day-Old Corn Seedling Evaluation
V.H.V. Mondo, M.A.N. Dias* and M.B. McDonald
Vigor testing is an important determinant of seed quality, providing supplementary information to a germination test. The objective of this study was to compare a 2-day-old seedling test for corn seed vigor assessment using the seed vigor imaging system (SVIS®) to other established vigor tests.