Seed Quality Problems Commonly Encountered During Vegetable and Flower Seed Production
James T. Watkins
A seed company’s ability to produce high quality vegetable and flower seed depends greatly on how it manipulates common and unusual environmental and cultural situations arising in the production field. Many of these situations can be planned for, limited and controlled; however, problems always occur that are unexpected.
Flower Seed Testing and Reporting Needs of the Professional Grower
Paul T. Karlovich
Flower seed quality has improved markedly in the past 20 years. Standardized germination testing has not developed to more accurately reflect this improved seed quality. Eleven ideas are presented to improve seed testing and the reporting of seed testing results. Imaging technology is the most important of these. A failure to adopt and interpret the results of computer images following a germination test will ultimately lead to the obsolescence of AOSA in flower seed testing because this important work will be fulfilled by commercial companies.
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Seed Quality Problems Commonly Encountered in the Laboratory for Vegetable and Flower Seeds
Deborah J. Lionakis Meyer
Purity and germination testing provide a baseline value of vegetable and flower seed quality. The history of standardization of seed testing protocols for vegetable and flower seeds utilized by the Association of Official Seed Analysts over the past 100 years is reviewed. The ability to assess and convey levels of seed quality for vegetable and flower seeds is hampered by the lack of appropriate or standardized laboratory testing methods, or both. This discussion provides examples of problems ranging from kind and seed unit identification, classification of contaminants, germination test methods and seedling evaluation. Emphasis is placed on the need to develop and refine laboratory testing procedures and improve seed analyst training with the focus on standardization within and among laboratories.
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A Walk on the Wild Side: Quality Assurance Problems Unique to the Wildflower Seed Trade
Jane T. Hall
The successful result of a quality wildflower planting is the establishment of a natural environment of beauty for people to enjoy. Although the term “wildflower” appears simple, it is one of contention in the current wildflower market place. Wildflowers are desired for their less formal presentation and adaptation to a variety of environmental conditions. These same traits create problems with quality assurance of wildflower seed; problems that arise from the basic nature of wildflowers due to their wildness. The wildness of wildflower seed is expressed in a variety of ways that affect stand establishment, seed production, conditioning, laboratory testing and marketing.
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Unique Seed Quality Problems of sh2 Sweet Corn
Dale O.Wilson, Jr.* and S. Krishna Mohan
The high sucrose content of shrunken-2 (sh2) or supersweet sweet corn inhibits drying of the seed crop in the field, and necessitates a long (70 day +) period of maturation after pollination before harvest and artificial drying of the seed crop. During this time, the ear is highly susceptible to invasion by insects and rotting by fungi. Stringent insect control is crucial for production of disease-free seed.
Seed-borne Pathogens of Vegetable and Flower Seeds: Their Devastation, Identification and Control
Recognition of the importance of seed-borne diseases in vegetable and flower seeds is often overlooked, particularly in the case of flower seeds. Plant diseases may be found in, on or with seed and seed lots. Seed-borne diseases may be grouped according to their causal agents, fungi, bacteria, viruses nematodes etc..
The Use of Biologicals to Enhance Vegetable Seed Quality
Mark A. Bennett
Beneficial bacteria and fungi provide promising alternatives or supplements to chemicals as seed treatments against soilborne pathogens. This review provides an assessment of biological control agents (BCA’s) currently used with vegetable crop species, and key limitations to expanded use of BCA’s as seed treatments. Research areas for improved biological efficacy and reliability in field and greenhouse settings are also discussed.
The Evolution and Effects of Priming Vegetable Seeds
Gregory E.Welbaum*, Zhengxing Shen, Melkizedek O. Oluoch, and Lewis W. Jett
Priming is a treatment that partially hydrates seeds so that germination processes begin, but radicle emergence does not occur. Experimentally, priming treatments are limited only to conditions that do not result in premature radicle extension and may include: equilibration under conditions of high humidity, soaking in water or osmotic solution, equilibration with a matricpotential control surface, intermixture with a porous matrix material, and moisture addition to a seed water content less than required for germination.
Seed Dormancy in Commercial Vegetable and Flower Species
Robert L. Geneve
Seed dormancy in small-seeded vegetable and flower crops impacts both seed production and germination. Seed dormancy can also complicate assessment of seed quality by the seed analyst who requires prompt germination to evaluate a seed lot. These crops also display diverse mechanisms for seed dormancy. This review surveys and categorizes the different seed dormancy conditions found in this important group of plants.