Methods for the Germination of Beardless Wildrye (Elymus triticoides Buckl.)1
T. J. Gutormson and L. E. Wiesner2
A 0.2% KNO3 solution is the best moistening agent to use when viability testing beardless wildrye. Germination temperatures of 15-25 and 20 C provide equal estimations of germination when light is used with the 20 C temperature. Beardless wildrye germination was equal in light and dark environments when using the 15-25 C temperature.
Additional Index Words: KNO3, temperatures, prechill.
Determining Seed Quality of Winterfat [Ceratoides lanata (Pursh.) J. T. Howell]1
Phil S. Allen, Susan E. Meyer, Tim D. Davis2
Studies with seeds of winterfat [Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) J. T. Howell] were conducted preparatory to submitting a proposal for an addition to Rules For Testing Seeds. "Threshed seeds", "fruits ≥ 3 mm in length," and "'all winterfat fruits': were evaluated as criteria for determining what should be considered pure seed in laboratory testing.
Additional index words: germination, seed testing, wildland seed.
Changes in Lipid Fatty Acids Associated With Dormancy Breaking in Amaranthus albus Seeds1
R. Chadoeuf-Hannel and R. B. Taylorson2
Changes in lipid fatty acids associated with the breaking of dormancy by phytochrome in Amaranthus albus L. seeds were investigated. Changes in polar lipids occurred within 4 hours after dormancy was overcome by a stimulatory red irradiation. In irradiated seeds, the percentage of unsaturation in polar lipid increased as shown by enhanced linoleic acid content. In seeds maintained in dormancy, the polar lipid fatty acid composition also changed but opposite to that observed in irradiated seeds. The results suggest the involvement of membrane lipids in the transition from a dormant to a non-dormant state in seeds.
Additional Index Words: Membrane, phytochrome, polar and nonpolar lipids, red irradiation, temperature.
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Relationship of Germination and Vigor Tests to Field Emergence of Snap Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)1
C. Samimy, A. G. Taylor, and T. J. Kenny2
Four laboratory tests were evaluated for their ability to predict the potential field emergence of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Standard germination, accelerated aging, cold soil test and conductivity test were conducted on commercial seed lots and the results were correlated with seedling emergence in two field plantings in 1982 and 1983.
In a separate study conducted in 1983, seeds of 'Flo' were artificially aged for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. The values of cold and conductivity tests followed by the germination test were highly correlated with the field emergence.
Additional index words: accelerated aging, cold test, conductivity, seed quality, seed vigor, stand establishment.
Pictures and Descriptions of Certain Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) Fruit Not Illustrated in U.S. Department of Agriculture handbook No. 301
Deborah J. Lionakis Meyer2
Descriptions and drawings of fruit structures of the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) not illustrated in Agriculture Handbook No. 30 are provided for three taxa: Anthriscus caucalis Bieb., Torilis amensis (Huds.) Link subsp. arvensis and T. arvensis (Huds.) Link subsp. purpurea (Ten.) Hayek.
Additional Index Words: schizocarp, mericarp, cremocarp.
Seed Pellets for Improved Seed Distribution of Small Seeded Forage Crops1
Albert E. Smith and Richard Miller
Broadcast seeding of forage crops having small seed is difficult and often results in uneven stands due to the inability to consistently meter seed flow. Broadcast seeding of forage species into areas where ground equipment cannot operate is being accomplished with aircraft. The small light seed of forage grass and legume species cannot be uniformly broadcast from an aircraft due to wind currents and packing of the seed in the aircraft container. The purpose of our research was to develop seed-pelleting methods for bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and ladino clover (Trifolium repens L.) with improved metering and ballistic properties for increased precision and accuracy of seed distribution from aerial seeding.
Additional index words: Polyvinyl alcohol, kaolin clay, legumes, grasses, aerial seeding, broadcast seeding.
Evaluation of the Dot-Immunobinding Assay for Detecting Phytopathogenic Bacteria in Wheat Seeds1
L. E. Claflin and B. A. Ramundo
A dot-immunobinding assay (DIA) was evaluated for detecting Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, P. s. pv. atrofaciens, Clavibacter tritici, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. translucens in wheat seeds.
Additional Index Words: Basal glume rot, black chaff, spike blight, bacterial leaf blight.
A Field Study of Moisture Content of Soybean Pods and Seeds After Harvest Maturity1
R. W. Yaklich and P. B. Cregan2
Field weathering of soybean, [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], seeds, after harvest maturity, reduces seed germination and increases disease incidence. Therefore, the objective of this paper was to determine if there were genotypic differences in pod and seed moisture of three Maturity Group III and Maturity Group IV cultivars.
Moisture content of soybean pods and seeds fluctuated daily. Moisture content of pods and seeds of Group III cultivars was significantly higher at the 800 h sampling time than at the 1300 h. Significant differences between pod moisture content of Group III cultivars were observed in 1979, which was a wet harvest season. These results agree with previous laboratory observations and suggest that there is genotypic variability in pod moisture uptake.
Additional index words: Glycine max (L.) Merr., Field weathering, Dew, Precipitation.
Seed Treatment in Rice
V. Krishnasamy and D. V. Seshu1
Rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) seeds are treated prior to storage with insecticides and fungicides to ward off the external agents of seed damage. Fumigation controls the insects that have already infested the seeds. Several pre-sowing seed treatments are available to prevent seedling mortality during germination. Such treatments not only enhance seedling establishment but also the crop performance. A few areas of rice seed treatment requiring further studies are also indicated.
Additional index words: Storage, pesticide, fumigation, pre-sowing.
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Interfacing the ASAC-1000 Seed Analyzer with an IBM-PC Microcomputer Using the Basic Program ASACSTAT1
K. C. Furman, L. W. Woodstock, and T. Solomos2
The ability to obtain seed quality population statistics from seed steep water conductivity measurements based on large sample sizes could lead to standardized conductivity indices for vigor and viability for a greater number of seed kinds. The ASAC-100 seed analyzer3 simultaneously measures the steep water conductivity of 100 individual seeds. By directly interfacing the ASAC-1000 with an IBM-PC computer using the BASIC program ASACSTAT, various analyses or experiments can be designed and large quantities of data collected for statistical analysis.
Additional index words: computer, vigor, seed quality, deterioration, aging, seed, seed testing, leachate, conductivity.
Peanut Seed Production1
Gary A. Reusche2
A brief overview of topics relating to peanut seed production and testing based on selected research and extension publications is presented.3 Topics relating to seed production include the morphology of the peanut plant and seed, field isolation requirements, seed calcium requirements, harvest management and conditioning.
Additional Index Words: Arachis hypogaea. Seed Harvest, Seed Conditioning,
Seed Processing, Seed Testing, Seed Vigor.
The Influence of Soaking Pepper Seed in Water or Potassium Salt Solutions on Germination at Three Temperatures1
Kenneth W. Jones and D. C. Sanders2
Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds were soaked in water, a 1% KNO3 + 1% K2HPO4 solution, or a 1.5% KNO3 + 1.5% K2HPO4 solution at 21°C for either 72 hrs or 96 hrs. Seeds were air dried and germinated at 15oC, 20°C, or 25°C. All soaking treatments hastened germination and resulted in more uniform germination.
Additional index words: seed treatment, seed invigoration, Capsicum annuum L.