Ancient Seeds; Seed Longevity
Vivian K. Toole1
This paper tells about the widespread publicity, following archaeological excavations, given to "mummy" grain and its viability, identification of ancient grain as to species, findings of wild species, species grown in ancient times and conclusive evidence that mummy grain is nonviable. A brief reference is made to the longevity of the lotus seeds from Pulantien and to herbarium and buried seeds, and to present knowledge of seed viability under controlled conditions, to imbibition, dormancy and hard-seed effects on longevity and a glimpse into Alladin's lamp of seed immortality.
Additional index words: buried seeds, mummified seeds, viability.
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Variety Testing by Official AOSA Seed Laboratories1
R. C. Payne2
A questionnaire concerning variety testing was sent to 66 official AOSA seed testing laboratories. Forty-four of the responding seed laboratories routinely test vegetable and/or agricultural seeds and 86 percent of these laboratories engage in variety testing. The variety testing procedures most widely used by AOSA member laboratories are
Additional index words: Variety testing, morphological seed characteristics, "quick" tests, growth chamber, electrophoresis, field tests.
Optimizing Time of Harvest for Seed of Allium cepa L.1
C. A. Neal and L. A. Ellerbrock2
Six time-of-harvest trials were conducted over a 3-year period to define the optimum time at which the seed crop of onion (Allium cepa L.) should be harvested. Individual plots were harvested over a 7- to 16-day period beginning when the first capsules dehisced. Yield increased as either a linear or quadratic function of time.
Additional index words: onions, seed production.
Positioning AOSA for the Future1
Dennis M. TeKrony2
An anniversary is an excellent time to inventory previous accomplishments and to plan for the future. The other speakers in this symposium have provided an overview of the goals, accomplishments and shortcomings of their respective societies for the past 75 years. It is my intent to examine the present status of the Association of Official Seed Analysts (AOSA) and to position this association for the future.
Additional index words: Research, goals, objectives.
Effect of Stratification, Drying, and Cold Storage on Noble Fir and Pacific Silver Fir
Oscar Hall and Ed Olson1
Four stored lots of noble fir, Abies procera Rehd. and two of pacific silver fir, A. amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes, were soaked in tap water for 48 hours at room temperature, stratified for 28 days at 4oC., dried to a moisture content between 5 and 9%, followed by 14 cold storage treatments.
Additional index words: Abies procera Rehd., Abies amabilis (Dougl.) Forbes, germination, viability, prechill.
A Method for Quantifying Color of Phenol Reaction on Wheat Seed1
K. M. Steen, O. L. Karsky, and J. D. Maguire2
The similarity in seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ) cultivars makes identification by morphological characteristics difficult. The phenol test is used to identify cultivars and to determine cultivar mixtures and mixtures of winter and spring types. The various colorations in the seed coat caused by the phenol oxidation make identification possible. The Munsell Soil Color Charts were used as reference in identification of color of 37 various cultivars. Evaluation by phenol testing requires known samples and careful timing to assure accurate evaluation.
Additional index words: cultivar identification, variety identification, phenol reaction, Munsell soil color chart.
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Assessment of a Simple Mechanical Shaker for Measuring Screening in Barley
D. J. Martin1, B. T. McLean1, and R. J. Mayer2
A simple, mechanically operated shaker, suitable for routine testing of samples from barley breeding programmes, was used to determine the effect of shaking time on 'screenings' produced from two contrasting barley samples. The shaker was fitted with a single screen with 2.2 mm apertures. Screenings increased asymptotically as shaking time was extended, a minimum of 5 min being needed to give a constant screenings figure. With 5 min shaking, the means and 95% confidence intervals for the varieties Clipper and Pirouette were 8.1 ± 0.5 and 15.7 ± 1.2 respectively.
Additional index words: barley quality, grain size, grain assortment.
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Magnetic Conditioning of Seeds of Leek (Allium porrum L.) to Increase Seed Lot Germination Percentage1
P. Krishnan and A. G. Berlage2
Magnetic conditioning of seed lots involves treating either with iron powder and moisture or with magnetic fluid. The treated mixture is passed over a magnetic drum separator. Effects of these conditioning methods in improving germination percentages of leek seeds were investigated.
Additional index words: Magnetic-fluid, iron-powder.